Factors Influencing Early Dental Implant Failures. B.R. Chrcanovic, J. Kisch, T. Albrektsson, and A. Wennerberg.
Previously, much had been documented about local and systemic factors affecting the long term outcome of dental implants - e.g those that occurred after occlusal loading (Chrcanovic et al 2014). However up until this point, the causes and effects of early implant failure – e.g those that occurred before abutment connection surgery, were less clear.
Battaglino R, Fu J, Späte U, Ersoy U, Joe M, Sedaghat L, Stashenko P. 2004. Serotonin regulates osteoclast differentiation through its transporter. J Bone Miner Res. 19(9):1420–1431.
Bliziotes MM, Eshleman AJ, Zhang XW, Wiren KM. 2001. Neurotransmitter action in osteoblasts: expression of a functional system for serotonin receptor activation and reuptake. Bone. 29(5):477–486.
Chrcanovic BR, Albrektsson T, Wennerberg A. 2014. Reasons for failures of oral implants. J Oral Rehabil. 41(6):443–476
Warden SJ, Robling AG, Sanders MS, Bliziotes MM, Turner CH. 2005. Inhibition of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) transporter reduces bone accrual during growth. Endocrinology. 146(2):685–693.
Westbroek I, van der Plas A, de Rooij KE, Klein-Nulend J, Nijweide PJ. 2001. Expression of serotonin receptors in bone. J Biol Chem. 276(31):28961– 28968Yadav VK, Ryu JH, Suda N, Tanaka KF, Gingrich JA, Schutz G, Glorieux FH, Chiang CY, Zajac JD, Insogna KL, et al. 2008. Lrp5 controls bone formation by inhibiting serotonin synthesis in the duodenum. Cell. 135(5):825– 837
During the early 1970's while Brånemark was deep into his research into osseointegration, other Europeans followed suit. They included André Schröeder at Switzerland's Berne University who was working on a similar implant for clinical application in conjunction with the renowned Straumann Institute.
Long-term follow-up study of osseointegrated implants in the treatment of totally edentulous jaws.Adell R, Eriksson B, Lekholm U, Brånemark Pl, Jemt T. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1990 Winter;5(4):347-59. PMID: 2094653
1982 was a huge turning point for Brånemark and it was a point that he had been working towards for the past 17 years. This included 15 years of clinical follow-up trials. Yet despite the hugely positive results, he was reluctant to present his findings to the public at the Toronto conference, because he felt quite simply, that the world still wasn't ready for dental implants.
A 15-year study of osseointegrated implants in the treatment of the edentulous jaw. Adell R, Lekholm U, Rockler B, Brånemark PI. Int J Oral Surg. 1981 Dec;10(6):387-416. PMID: 6809663
Anyone who knows anything about dental implants is aware of the story of Per-Ingvar Brånemark and how he accidentally discovered the process he later named as osseointegration. You're probably also aware that despite him being named as one of the most influential people in the dental profession, he wasn't actually a dentist.
Osseointegration and its experimental background., Brånemark PI., J Prosthet Dent. 1983 Sep;50(3):399-410. PMID: 6352924